The Rev. John Sanqiang Cao paid not more than three {dollars} for the journey that might find yourself costing him his freedom.

For years, he and fellow Chinese language Christian academics would cross the river on a slim bamboo raft from a tree-shrouded financial institution in southern China into neighboring Myanmar, carrying with them notebooks, pencils and Bibles. The journey that enabled the missionaries to slide between the nations — a distance no higher than 9 meters (30 toes) — all the time occurred in broad daylight, in response to a U.S.-based missionary who traveled with Cao.

The journey on March 5, 2017, was totally different. Cao and a trainer had been on a raft returning to Yunnan province once they noticed Chinese language safety brokers ready for them on the shore. Many years of labor in China’s clandestine “home” church buildings and unofficial Bible faculties had ready the distinguished 58-year-old Christian chief for this second. He shortly threw his cellphone into the water, defending the identities of greater than 50 Chinese language academics he had recruited to offer ethnic minority Burmese kids a free training rooted in Christianity.

However Cao himself couldn’t escape. He was sentenced final month to seven years in jail for “organizing others to illegally cross the border” — against the law extra generally utilized to human traffickers. His American sons and Christian colleagues — who haven’t been allowed contact with him since his arrest — spoke concerning the case for the primary time to The Related Press, arguing that the pastor’s sentence ought to be diminished in gentle of his humanitarian work.

“Nothing my father organized was ever political. It was all the time simply spiritual or charitable,” mentioned Ben Cao, the pastor’s 23-year-old son, a U.S. citizen residing in Charlotte, North Carolina. “We hope that China can be merciful, and see that my father’s intentions had been good.”

Cao’s punishment was handed down as Beijing pursues a plan to “sinicize” the nation’s main religions, get rid of “overseas affect” and align faiths extra intently with the atheist ruling Communist Celebration’s personal doctrines. Analysts say the federal government more and more views Christianity’s rise in China as a menace to its rule, and could also be utilizing distinguished figures corresponding to Cao for instance to intimidate nascent actions.

The pastor’s case additionally seems to indicate the social gathering needs to increase its management over the actions of China’s devoted even when they’re overseas.

“This displays the tightening surroundings below President Xi (Jinping) towards any form of spiritual independence,” mentioned Cao’s longtime buddy Bob Fu, a Texas-based Christian rights activist. “Up to now once they talked about overseas infiltration, they had been referring to the actions of overseas missionaries inside China, however that has now expanded to incorporate Chinese language missionaries going abroad.”

New spiritual laws carried out in February stipulate that Chinese language nationals who depart the nation for spiritual functions with out authorities authorization could possibly be fined as much as 200,000 yuan ($31,780). In the meantime, leaders of church buildings not accredited by the state have reported being prevented from leaving mainland China outright.

A U.S. State Division spokesman advised the AP that Washington is “deeply involved” about Cao’s sentence and has urged China to launch him as a U.S. authorized everlasting resident on “humanitarian grounds.” Cao intends to retire and return to his household in America as soon as he’s freed, the spokesman mentioned.

Chris Smith, a New Jersey congressman who chairs a Home subcommittee on human rights, mentioned in an announcement that “Pastor Cao’s title ought to be on President Trump’s lips at any time when he talks to Xi Jinping,” China’s president.


Cao was 20 years previous when he met an American Christian couple who had been sightseeing in his hometown in central Hunan province. They gave him his first Bible and exchanged letters with him about Christianity. Cao, the eldest son of academics, advised them that he listened to the evangelist Billy Graham’s radio broadcasts and felt referred to as to pastor the Chinese language individuals.

So even after marrying an American girl, finishing seminary research in New York and pastoring a Chinese language-American congregation in North Carolina, Cao retained his Chinese language citizenship and break up his time between the nations.

He turned closely concerned with China’s “home” church buildings — Protestant congregations that aren’t state-sanctioned however which native authorities have in lots of instances tolerated. Cao based greater than a dozen Bible boarding faculties in central and southern China that skilled youngsters from poor Christian households to develop into unofficial pastors. Some later turned academics on the faculties Cao inbuilt Myanmar.

A lot of the faculties have been raided and shut down by safety brokers in recent times, Cao’s supporters say.

Amos Cao, the pastor’s 26-year-old son, mentioned Cao has a magnetic presence that made him a pure trainer. He loves telling self-deprecating bilingual jokes, and ran a web site that defined English idioms in Chinese language.

“I traveled no less than 5,000 miles, largely by prepare, hard-seat class or bus,” Cao as soon as described his work in a letter to supporters. “Reward the Lord, He has sustained me and saved me in good condition. I misplaced 5 kilos!”

When earthquakes struck Sichuan province in 2008, and Nepal in 2015, Cao flew in to assist victims, his fellow missionaries mentioned, shopping for garments for them at the same time as he wore the identical gray jacket and footwear for years.

“My father all the time tried to save lots of as a lot cash as doable so he might give it away,” Ben Cao mentioned.


Christianity’s fast progress, capability to mobilize and resilience by means of harsh intervals of persecution make it seem as a menace to the Communist Celebration, analysts say, significantly given its hyperlink to Western civilization.

“I believe (Cao) was singled out for this arrest,” mentioned Xi Lian, a scholar of Christianity in China at Duke College. Lian famous that pastors with “decrease visibility” have been doing comparable work alongside the China-Myanmar border with no repercussions, however Cao’s prominence in the home church networks made him “the form of particular person that will make the Chinese language authorities nervous.”

There at the moment are greater than 38 million Protestants in China, in response to official estimates, and specialists have predicted that the nation could have the world’s largest Christian inhabitants in just a few many years.

A Chinese language Christian trainer arrested with Cao was convicted of a lesser crime and has since been launched. Cao’s lawyer Liu Peifu mentioned he believed the pastor’s spiritual organizing was a “issue” in his sentence, which Liu has appealed.

Cao tried to get state approval for a lot of of his tasks, Ben Cao mentioned. He handed over a major faculty and well being clinic he established to native authorities, and didn’t resist when officers requested him to halt sure undertakings.

Nonetheless, Cao was below fixed surveillance. Darek Jarmola, an American trainer who leads Christian youth journeys, recalled noticing somebody taking footage of him and Cao whereas they had been having dinner in Hunan final January.

Cao shrugged it off, Jarmola mentioned. “I have never accomplished something mistaken, and if I do, they will arrest me,” he advised Jarmola.

The pastor was continuously referred to as in to satisfy with safety brokers who questioned him about his recruitment of Chinese language volunteers to construct greater than a dozen faculties in Myanmar’s Wa state, Fu mentioned.

“There have been no secrets and techniques,” Fu mentioned. “He all the time believed that he operated with the federal government’s tacit blessing.”

Yunnan’s Menglian County Detention Middle, the place Cao is being held, repeatedly declined to touch upon his case. The county’s spiritual affairs workplace mentioned they weren’t conscious of it.

“The federal government selected the fitting church to persecute,” Cao as soon as wrote in a letter describing the resilience of home church buildings. “Time has confirmed … that God continues to be alive and effectively in China.”


Related Press author Matthew Pennington in Washington, D.C. contributed to this report.